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 Post subject: Cum folosim corect (PP) Permanganatul de potasiu
PostPosted: Wed Jun 16, 2021 11:35 am 

Joined: Mon Jun 14, 2021 11:21 pm
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Location: Norway

Use of Potassium Permanganate to Control External
Infections of Ornamental Fish 1
Ruth Francis-Floyd and RuthEllen Klinger2
1. This document is FA37, one of a series of the Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original publication date June, 1997. Reviewed July, 2002. Visit the EDIS Web Site at
2. Ruth Francis-Floyd, Professor, and RuthEllen Klinger, former Biological Scientist, Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences (College of Veterinary
Medicine) and Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611.
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity - Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide
research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, creed, color, religion,
age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For information on obtaining other extension
publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences / University of Florida / Larry R. Arrington, Interim Dean
Many disease problems of ornamental fish begin
as external infections. If uncontrolled, the infections
may become systemic, resulting in death of the fish.
Correct use of potassium permanganate can
effectively control many bacterial, parasitic and
fungal agents before systemic infections become
established, often eliminating the need for antibiotic
therapy. The fish owner saves money because use of
expensive antibiotics is decreased, thereby decreasing
the incidence of resistant bacterial strains. In the
ornamental trade, correct use of potassium
permanganate at the onset of an infection can also
speed the movement of fish as they do not need to be
held for lengthy (often 10–14 day) antibiotic
What is Potassium Permanganate?
Potassium permanganate (KMnO4
) is an
oxidizing agent that has been used for many years in
aquaculture. It is also used in water conditioning
systems and in the plumbing industry. As an
oxidizer, it is able to chemically "burn up" organic
material. This includes undesirable organic matter
such as bacteria, parasites, and fungus, as well as
desirable material such as gill tissue and mucus.
Because the chemical cannot distinguish between
desirable and undesirable organic matter, it is up to
the individual to use the chemical in a manner that
results in maximum benefit and minimum harm to
treated fish.
Color Change Associated with
Potassium Permanganate Use
When potassium permanganate is active (in its
unoxidized form), treated water turns a
pinkish-purple color. As the chemical is
"deactivated" (by oxidizing organic material), the
water color changes to yellow or muddy brown. This
color change is an important tool when monitoring
chemical treatment (discussed below); however, this
may make potassium permanganate undesirable for
use in display tanks, exhibits, or ornamental ponds.
As with many chemicals used in water, potassium
permanganate is harmful to plants and invertebrates.Use of Potassium Permanganate to Control External Infections of Ornamental Fish 2
Use of Potassium Permanganate
For most fish, potassium permanganate can be
administered at a concentration of 2 mg/L as a
long-term bath (four-hour minimum) in fresh water
or salt water systems. Potassium permanganate is
also reasonably safe to use in recirculating systems
and has minimal impact on biofilters when used at
2 mg/L. Treated water should retain the purple
coloration for at least four hours.
There is extensive information on the use of
potassium permangante in freshwater systems, but
much less is known about its effect in marine
systems. Fish culturists should run a small bioassay
before treating marine fish.
Some fish, including certain Lake Malawi
cichlids, are sensitive to potassium permanganate and
lower concentrations (1 mg/L) may be safer. A small
experiment run by the authors on a cichlid production
facility in southeast Florida demonstrated that 2 mg/L
for four hours was safe for common cichlids.
The fish owner can determine species sensitivity by
observing the behavior of the fish during treatment.
This is especially important when treating a species
for the first time. If fish react adversely, immediate
action (such as diluting the chemical with fresh
water) should be taken.
Because potassium permanganate is deactivated
by organic matter, it may be necessary to increase the
amount added to ponds or other systems where
organic material has been allowed to accumulate. A
safe way of accomplishing this is to add potassium
permanganate to the system in 2 mg/L increments. If
water color changes from purple to brown in less than
four hours from the start of the first treatment, an
additional 2 mg/L should be added. If a total
application of 6 mg/L potassium permanganate does
not result in maintenance of the purple color for at
least four hours, the system should be cleaned. Most
of the organisms that are treated with potassium
permanganate thrive in an organically rich
environment; therefore, improved sanitation can have
a tremendous impact on treatment efficacy.
Potassium permanganate can also be used as a
short-term bath at concentrations of 10 mg/L for 30
minutes. At this concentration, careful observation of
fish is mandatory to avoid mortality. This is a
convenient treatment when fish are being removed
from ponds and brought into buildings for sorting and
shipping. Following a potassium permanganate
treatment with a low concentration (2–10 ppt) of
salt (sodium chloride) as a semipermanent treatment
for several days or weeks (depending on species
treated), can be beneficial. This combination is
particularly effective in minimizing Columnaris
infections (see UF/IFAS Fact Sheet FA-11,
Columnaris Disease) after handling fish.
Potassium permanganate can be used as a surface
disinfectant at concentrations of 10 mg/L (30–60
minutes contact time) to 500 mg/L (30 seconds
contact time) in a fish room or hatchery, however,
quaternary ammonium compounds are better suited to
this purpose. Potassium permanganate will kill
bacterial, fungal and many parasitic agents, but it is
not viricidal.
Frequency of Treatment
As mentioned above, potassium permanganate is
an indiscriminate oxidizer, and as such, can burn gill
tissue and mucus of treated fish if too much chemical
is applied. A good rule of thumb to prevent excessive
damage to fish is to avoid treating them with
potassium permanganate more than once a week. If a
chemical treatment is needed for a condition that
requires more frequent application, such as treatment
for an outbreak of "Ich" (Ichthyophthirius multifiliis,
see UF/IFAS Extension Circular 920), potassium
permanganate is not a good choice.
Treatment Failure
Poor efficacy following use of potassium
permanganate is usually caused by one of three
factors: (1) incorrect or incomplete diagnosis; (2)
incorrect calculation or measurement of amount of
chemical needed; and (3) excessive organic material
in the system resulting in rapid degradation of the
chemical. Any time treatment failure occurs, sick
fish should be submitted to a diagnostic laboratory for
an accurate diagnosis. Volume of the water treated,
accuracy of calculations to determine treatment rate,
and accurate measurement (by weight) of chemical
used are essential for delivery of an appropriate
chemical dose. As mentioned above, an excessive Use of Potassium Permanganate to Control External Infections of Ornamental Fish 3
amount of organic matter in the system will result in
rapid deactivation of potassium permanganate, and
therefore contact time with active chemical will be
inadequate for effective treatment. This is often a
problem in heavily stocked ponds.
Determining the Amount of
Potassium Permanganate to Use
To calculate the amount of chemical required, a
simple formula can be used:
Amount of Chemical = Volume x
Conversion Factor x Treatment Rate
If the pond or tank volume is measured in
gallons, the conversion factor is 0.0038 and the
answer will be given in grams (see Table 1 for other
conversion factors).
For a treatment rate of 2 mg/L, this formula
would be:
Grams of Chemical = Gallons Treated x
0.0038 x 2 mg/L
Therefore, to treat a 250-gallon vat, the grams of
potassium permanganate needed are:
Grams needed = (250 gal) x (0.0038) x (2
mg/L) = 1.9 grams
An inexpensive gram scale can be obtained by
purchasing a dietary scale at your local grocery store
or pharmacy. One level teaspoon of potassium
permanganate weighs about 7.0 grams.
Table 1. Common Conversion Factors for Use in Calculation
of Amount of Chemical to Use in a Unit Volume of Water for a
Concentration of 1 ppm (1 mg/L).
Units Conversion Factor
grams/gallon 0.0038
pounds/acre-foot 2.72
grams/cubic foot 0.0283
pounds/cubic foot 0.000062
Use of a Stock Solution
An alternative method of measuring potassium
permanganate is to mix a stock solution. A stock
solution is a concentrated solution of chemical from
which small amounts can be taken to treat tanks as
needed. This is useful when either multiple tanks or
multiple treatments are needed. An easy way to
make up a stock solution for potassium permanganate
is to purchase a one-gallon bottle of distilled water,
weigh 285 grams of potassium permanganate, add it
to the solution, and mix thoroughly. This stock
solution will deliver a dose of 1 mg/L when delivered
at a rate of one drop per gallon. Therefore, to achieve
the desired concentration of 2 mg/L, the stock
solution can be delivered at a rate of two drops per
gallon. The stock solution should be stored in a cool,
dark area and be replaced annually.
When treating larger systems, it is useful to
remember that 20 drops are equal to 1 milliliter (ml),
or one cubic centimeter (cc) if measuring the liquid
with a syringe. Therefore, 1 ml of stock solution will
treat ten gallons of water with a concentration of 2
Safety Precautions When Handling
Potassium Permanganate
Potassium permanganate is fairly safe to handle,
however, all chemicals should be treated with respect.
Potassium permanganate will easily stain clothing
and skin. Brown discoloration of skin is not painful,
but it may be unsightly and takes several days to
disappear. Brown stains to clothing can be
permanent. Protective eye wear, gloves and clothing
are recommended when handling potassium
Fish farmers and aquarists do occasionally mix
chemicals. It is important that formalin and
potassium permanganate are NEVER mixed as the
combination can be explosive.
Potassium permanganate is an oxidizer which
can be used to "disinfect" the external surfaces of
fish. It effectively removes most external parasites,
as well as fungal and bacterial agents. Most fish can Use of Potassium Permanganate to Control External Infections of Ornamental Fish 4
be treated by prolonged immersion in a 2 mg/L
potassium permanganate solution (water must retain
a purple color for at least four hours), although some
species may be sensitive to it and may not tolerate a
full strength (2 mg/L) bath. Because of its harsh
oxidizing properties, potassium permanganate should
not be applied to fish more frequently than once per
week or mortality may result. It is safe to use in
marine and recirculating systems at 2 mg/L.
Potassium permanganate can stain skin and clothing
so care is suggested when handling it. The chemical
should NEVER be mixed directly with formalin as
an explosion or fire could result

 Post subject: Re: Cum folosim corect (PP) Permanganatul de potasiu
PostPosted: Thu Jun 17, 2021 9:40 am 
User avatar

Joined: Sun Feb 21, 2010 2:51 am
Posts: 1132
Location: 515800-Sebes
I usually use it in 0.15 g/ 100 L concentration. 1.5 mg /L


Why go saltwater when the best of all fish is found in a South American blackwater environment!?

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